1. The End of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965
In India, on 21 September 1965, the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 ended with a ceasefire. The war was fought over the disputed territory of Kashmir and resulted in thousands of casualties on both sides.
The war began on 5 August 1965, when Pakistan launched Operation Gibraltar, a covert operation to infiltrate and incite a rebellion in Kashmir. India responded by launching a counter-offensive across the international border on 6 September, triggering a full-scale war.
The war saw the use of tanks, artillery, aircraft, and naval forces by both sides. It also involved the largest tank battle since World War II at the Battle of Chawinda. The war reached a stalemate as neither side could gain a decisive advantage.
The ceasefire was mediated by the Soviet Union and the United States and led to the Tashkent Declaration in January 1966. The declaration called for the withdrawal of troops to pre-war positions and the restoration of diplomatic relations. However, it did not resolve the underlying issue of Kashmir, which remains a source of conflict between India and Pakistan to this day.
2. The Publication of The Hobbit
In the world, on 21 September 1937, J.R.R. Tolkien’s fantasy novel The Hobbit was published for the first time. The book is a prequel to his later epic The Lord of the Rings and tells the story of Bilbo Baggins, a hobbit who goes on an adventure with a group of dwarves and a wizard to reclaim a treasure from a dragon.
The Hobbit was originally written as a children’s book and was based on stories that Tolkien told to his own children. He was encouraged by his friend and fellow author C.S. Lewis to submit it to a publisher, who accepted it with enthusiasm.
The book was an instant success and received critical acclaim from reviewers and readers alike. It has sold over 100 million copies worldwide and has been translated into more than 50 languages. It has also inspired several adaptations, including animated films, radio dramas, video games, and a live-action film trilogy directed by Peter Jackson.
The Hobbit is widely regarded as one of the most influential and beloved works of fantasy literature ever written. It introduced many elements that would later become staples of the genre, such as elves, dwarves, orcs, wizards, dragons, and magic rings. It also created a rich and detailed world that would be further explored in The Lord of the Rings and other works by Tolkien.
3. International Day of Peace
The International Day of Peace was established by the United Nations General Assembly in 1981 as a day devoted to strengthening the ideals of peace, both within and among all nations and peoples. The first observance of the day was on 21 September 1982, coinciding with the opening session of the General Assembly.
The theme for 2023 is “Recovering better for an equitable and sustainable world”. This theme reflects the need to address the challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic, which has exacerbated existing inequalities, conflicts, and environmental problems. The theme also calls for a global solidarity and cooperation to build a more resilient and inclusive society that respects human rights and dignity.
One of the ways that the United Nations and its member states promote peace on this day is by calling for a global ceasefire and non-violence. This means that all parties involved in armed conflicts should stop fighting and refrain from any acts of aggression or violence. This would allow humanitarian aid to reach those in need, protect civilians, and create a space for dialogue and negotiation.
Another way that the United Nations and its member states promote peace on this day is by organizing various events and activities that raise awareness and mobilize action for peace. These include concerts, exhibitions, festivals, marches, prayers, workshops, lectures, debates, and more. These events aim to educate people about the causes and consequences of violence, inspire them to take action for peace, and celebrate the achievements and contributions of peacebuilders.
1949: Maharaja Hari Singh of Jammu and Kashmir signed the Instrument of Accession, integrating the princely state into India.
1964: Inauguration of the Vishveshwarya Iron and Steel Limited (VISL), a public sector steel plant in Karnataka.
1972: India and Pakistan signed the Shimla Agreement, establishing a ceasefire line (now the Line of Control) and aiming to settle disputes arising from the 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War.
1998: India conducted a series of nuclear tests at the Pokhran Test Range in Rajasthan, significantly impacting its strategic position in the region.
2003: The first World Peace Conference was held in Delhi, promoting peace, tolerance, and non-violence.
2014: India’s Mars Orbiter Mission (Mangalyaan) successfully entered Mars’ orbit, making India the fourth space agency in the world to do so.
2019: International Day of Peace, observed globally on September 21, is celebrated in India with various events promoting peace, unity, and non-violence.
1792: The French Republic was proclaimed after the fall of the French monarchy during the French Revolution.
1937: J.R.R. Tolkien’s novel “The Hobbit” was first published in the United Kingdom, introducing readers to the world of Middle-earth.
1949: The People’s Republic of China was officially established by the Chinese Communist Party under the leadership of Mao Zedong.
1950: American physicist and inventor Ralph L. Woods successfully demonstrated the first working laser.
1981: Belize gained independence from the United Kingdom, becoming a sovereign nation.
1991: Armenia declared its independence from the Soviet Union, following the collapse of the USSR.